Scoliosis, Kyphosis and Lordosis
Scoliosis is abnormal curvature of the spine in the coronal (lateral) plane. Kyphosis is excessive curvature of the spine in the sagittal (A-P) plane. Combined kyphosis and scoliosis is called Kyphoscoliosis. Lordosis is excessive curving of the lower spine and is often associated with scoliosis or kyphosis. These conditions can be exaggerated by poor posture. Abnormal curvature of the spine can result from disease of the vertebral column, including trauma or imbalance of the neuromuscular system. In adults, kyphosis is often related to osteoporosis but in children it can be due to injury, disease (e.g. a tumour on the spine) or a genetic disorder (e.g. spina bifida). Mild disease is usually painless but, as deformity grows, pain will likely increase.